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Late-socialist biopower appears more subtle than its socialist iteration, insofar as the tight marshaling of masses is perhaps becoming a thing of the past. However, I suspect that the current form of biopolitical control may also prove coercive, insofar as people are now required to submit to the discipline of a capitalist market in order to retain a grasp on welfare, life, and health. As poor families in Hà Nội emphasized in conversations with me, the shrinking availability of state entitlements even for quite needy families means that labor force participation, often in informal and makeshift fashion, is what shores up the state’s incapacity. And as other anthropologists have demonstrated, free-market biopower can have extremely nefarious effects.

In Việt Nam, though absolute poverty today is less prevalent than it was even a few decades ago, poverty has become increasingly concentrated in social groups who are structurally less able to compete for well-paid work – women, the elderly, the disabled and unwell, people in rural areas, and ethnic minorities. The selective redistribution of poverty in a society experiencing rapid economic growth and cultural change should represent an issue of substantial concern to both ethnographers as well as policymakers. Going forward, medical anthropology in Việt Nam would be improved by a significant investment of time and resources in understanding the welfare, health, and experiences of poor people and communities, because they are the most vulnerable to the ill effects of market transition. Accordingly, they have the most to teach scholars who wish to better understand the paradoxes of public health during late socialism.

Martha Lincoln is Assistant Professor of Anthropology at San Francisco State University. Her research interests include infectious disease, the public health consequences of economic change, and the cultural landscape of post-socialism. With interdisciplinary collaborators, she has also published on topics including feminicidio in Guatemala, the cultural politics of anatomical exhibitions, and the theoretical uses of ghosts and haunting. She is currently completing her first book, titled Remember The Source: Cholera and the Politics of Health in Vietnam . On Twitter: @heavyredaction .

Works Cited

An D.T.M., Minh H.V., Huong L.T., Hai P.T., Giang K.B., Xuan L.T.T., Hai P.T., Quynh Nga P., and J. Hsia. 2013. “Knowledge of Health Consequences of Tobacco Smoking: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Vietnamese Adults.” Global Health Action 6:1-9. .

Do Thi Thuy Nga, Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc, Nguyen Phuong Hoa, Nguyen Quynh Hoa, Nguyen Thi Thuy Nguyen, Hoang Thi Loan, Tran Khanh Toan, Ho Dang Phuc, Peter Horby, Nguyen Van Yen, Nguyen Van Kinh, and Heiman FL Wertheim. 2014. “Antibiotic Sales in Rural and Urban Pharmacies in Northern Vietnam: An Observational Study.” BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 15, no. 6.

Copyright Services

There are a lot of different stories about the purpose of copyright. Two of the stories dominate most discussions:

Economics and the Public Interest | "Moral Rights" of Creators

Economics and the Public Interest

The primary story of copyright in U.S. law focuses economic incentives and social progress. The U.S. Constitution gives Congress the ability " promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for a limited Time to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries." All of U.S. copyright law (and patent law) grows from this one brief phrase in the Constitution.

Exclusive rights

If you create a physical object, you can use physical means to control who gets to use it. But creative and expressive works are a little harder to control: if you write a book and want to control who gets to read it, the minute you let a copy out of your hands, you've lost a lot of control. The person you gave the copy to can pass it on to someone else, make a new copy, or even memorize pieces of it and recite them in public! Copyright deals with these problems by providing laws to control ownership and distribution of creative and expressive works.

The purpose of copyright, then, is to

Secured to Authors

If copyright exist, everyone would be able to make copies of each new creative work without the creator's permission. But because it does, creators get to decide whether or not their creative works get distributed, and how they get distributed. And if lots of people want copies of the work, the creator can make people pay to own those copies.

The purpose of copyright, then, is to create mechanisms to control ownership of expressive works,

Promoting Progress

Most creators, this story goes, create their works because they know they are able to get paid for the copies people want. Because copyright enables creators to get paid, more creators make more works. And more creative and expressive works is good for society, because it helps us develop arts, science, knowledge, and culture.

The purpose of copyright, then, is to create mechanisms that help creators control and receive payment for their works,

"Moral Rights" for Creators

Many countries have copyright systems based on "moral rights" justifications, rather than the incentive theory that's popular in the U.S. and other common law countries.

"Moral rights" are thought to arise naturally out of the deep connection that creators have with their works. Because of that connection, this story goes, the law must recognize creators' rights around attribution and reputation. In copyright based on moral rights theories, creators have some economic rights (such as the right to make copies), but they also have parallel rights to attribution and to prevent uses of their works of which they disapprove. In many countries, the moral rights cannot be sold or given away, and remain with the creator no matter who controls the economic rights.


...on Copyright Theory, Generally: Introduction - Copyright for Librarians , Berkman Center for Internet Society

...on Economics and the Public Interest: Collected research documents from the Society for Economic Research on Copyright Issues

...on Moral Rights: Womens Jumper Zabaione Sneakernews Cheap Online Good Service Newest Cheap Price KuKr3DR
, Wikipedia Moral Rights Basics , by Betsy Rosenblatt, Harvard Law School.

More basics: Copyright's Purpose: What Copyright is For | Functional © Fundamentals | The Public Domain | Exceptions Limitations: Classroom Use, Fair Use, and more

Unless otherwise noted, all content on the Copyright Information section of this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License . This web site presents information about copyright law. The University Libraries make every effort to assure the accuracy of this information but do not offer it as counsel or legal advice. Consult an attorney for advice concerning your specific situation.

The second lesson taught by experience with the TANF block grant is that unless the uses of a potential SNAP block grant funds are tightly specified, states will use the flexibility inherent in a block grant to spend the money for many purposes other than providing food subsidies. In a 2006 report, for example, the Government Accountability Office reported that states “used federal and state TANF funds to support a broad range of services, in contrast to 1995 when spending priorities focused more on cash assistance.” [20] Thus, although TANF was built on a program that focused almost all its resources on cash subsidies for destitute families, states now use TANF funds for child care and early childhood education, child protection, and other social services. Since its inception in the 1960s, the major goal of the SNAP program has been to help families purchase nutritious food. Unless Congress wants to diffuse the use of SNAP funds to other purposes, language in the block grant must be clear that funds can only be spent to help families purchase food or for closely related purposes. Some members of Congress may wish to give states more flexibility in the use of a SNAP block grant, but they should do so with full realization that providing such flexibility to states will result in some of the money being spent on programs that have little or nothing to do with nutrition.

A final way to save money in the SNAP program is to strengthen the program’s work requirements. Indeed, more American must work and earn all or most of their household income if federal and state governments are to move in the direction of fiscal solvency. The current SNAP program has work requirements that look strong on paper. These include the requirement that non-disabled and non-elderly recipients register for work, accept a job if offered, search for work or meet other work requirements that states impose (and are approved by the Department of Agriculture). In addition, recipients cannot quit a job or voluntarily reduce their hours of work to less than 30. A separate provision, often called the ABAWD (able-bodied adults without dependents) rule, recipients between the ages of 18 and 50 who have no dependents must work at least 20 hours per week or they can qualify for SNAP benefits for only 3 months (6 months under some circumstances if they lose a job) in a given 36 month period. [21]

But these requirements do not seem to be rigorously enforced. In fact, the administration has requested that the ABAWD rule be suspended for 2013 (as it was for part of 2009 and 2010). But those who think able-bodied welfare recipients should be required to work may want to strengthen the SNAP work requirements. If the Agriculture Committee decided to move in this direction, at least three changes in federal law would be required. First, federal law should set participation standards stipulating the percentage of non-exempt adults receiving SNAP who must engage in, say, 20 hours of work-related activity each week. The TANF program requires states to meet a 50 percent participation standard and that standard seems reasonable for the SNAP program as well. Second, SNAP would need to impose fines on individuals, including complete disqualification from the program, for noncompliance with work requirements. States already have the authority to impose sanctions, but states must use the sanctions more extensively if they are to have their intended impact. Like SNAP recipients, states that fail to meet their work requirements would also be subject to financial sanction. The goal of sanctions on states is to get them to implement the SNAP work requirements as aggressively as they implemented the TANF work requirements after the 1996 welfare reforms. Third, states will need additional funding to operate their employment programs. The administration has requested $218,873,000 for 2013 to reimburse states at 50 percent to operate their employment and training programs. [22] Although my view is that job search is the most effective use of funds, the SNAP employment and training account currently will pay for job search training and support, workfare, educational activities, and self-employment training. The Agriculture Committee would have to explore the cost of imposing a 50 percent work requirement on states, perhaps phased-in over five years beginning at 20 percent, with the Congressional Budget Office. However, about 60 percent of SNAP recipients would be exempt from the work requirement because of age or disability (in 2010, 47 percent were children, 8 percent were elderly, and 6 percent were disabled). [23] Although there would certainly be up-front costs, in the long run extensive and rigorous research on work requirements in the cash welfare program shows that there would be budget savings for federal, state, and local governments. [24]

Website Points : 8 The University of Texas-Arlington offers a master’s in aeronauts engineering online program that emphasizes experimentation and modern mathematical analysis. Enrolled students will choose one of four available specializations: Fluid Dynamics, Aerodynamics, and Propulsion; Structural Mechanics and Structures; Flight Mechanics and Controls; and Vehicle Design. The curriculum for the program covers a wide variety of topics in aerospace engineering, including aerodynamics, flight dynamics, propulsion, fluid mechanics, and structural analysis. Those who earn their online master’s degrees in aerospace engineering online are prepared for research and development careers in aerospace engineering or for doctoral study in the field. In-State Tuition : $7,141

Website Points : 9 The University of Southern California offers a highly versatile masters of aerospace engineering online program from its Viterbi School of Engineering. The program features six different specializations areas: Aerodynamics/Fluid Dynamics, Aerospace Control, Aerospace Design, Aerospace Structures, Computational Fluid Dynamics, and Propulsion. In addition to specialization classes, students will take core courses such as Engineering Analytical Methods, Compressible Gas Dynamics, Flight Vehicle Stability and Control, and Elements of Vehicle and Energy Systems Design. Students must maintain a minimum 3.0 GPA to earn their online master’s degrees in aeronautics engineering. In-State Tuition : $41,592

Website Points : 9 Virginia Tech offers both thesis and non-thesis master’s degrees in aeronautics engineering online. Both programs consist of 30 credit hours and are comprised of both synchronous and asynchronous courses. Students will take four required core courses: Vehicle Structures, Vehicle Dynamics Control, Applied Numerical Methods, and Advanced Aero/Hydrodynamics. Elective classes include Transonic Aerodynamics, Structural Optimization, Computational Fluid Dynamics, and Verification and Validation of Scientific Computing, for instance. A final oral examination is required prior to students earning their master’s degrees in aerospace engineering online. In-State Tuition : $12,467

Website Points : 10 The online master’s in aeronautics engineering program from the University of Washington’s William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics is a 45-credit hour, multidisciplinary offering. Enrolled students will choose one of four available concentrations: Controls, Fluids, Structures, or Composites. Sample course titles include Rocket Propulsion, Computational Methods in Aerodynamics, Classical Control Theory, and Manufacturing of Aerospace Composites. Students can earn their online master’s degrees in aeronautics engineering in three years on a part-time basis. In-State Tuition : $15,207

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